MEMANFAATKAN SUMBER ENERGI

MEMANFAATKAN SUMBER ENERGI ALTERNATIF UNTUK PENINGKATAN TARAF HIDUP 31-Dec-2005 Rendahnya akses energi di banyak daerah di Ind... thumbnail 1 summary
MEMANFAATKAN SUMBER ENERGI ALTERNATIF
UNTUK
PENINGKATAN TARAF HIDUP
31-Dec-2005

Rendahnya akses energi di banyak daerah di Indonesia menjadi salah satu permasalahan yang harus dipecahkan untuk mengangkat masyarakat dari kemiskinan. Ketersediaan energi yang merata dan murah dapat membuka jalan menuju masyarakat yang lebih sejahtera.
Kekayaan sumber daya alam dengan potensinya yang besar yang dapat diolah dan menghasilkan energi sering diabaikan. Peningkatan kuantitas dan kualitas penyediaan energi harus dipandang tidak hanya semata-mata memberikan tambahan kenyamanan dan perbaikan kualitas hidup, tetapi juga sebagai peluang besar untuk menumbuhkan kegiatan ekonomi masyarakat.

KEMISKINAN DAN ENERGI

Ketersediaan energi memang jarang diangkat sebagai isu penting dalam penanggulangan kemiskinan. Namun dengan melihat kehidupan masyarakat miskin akan tampak secara nyata bagaimana kemudahan mendapatkan energi, baik dalam bentuk listrik maupun bahan energi lainnya, dapat meningkatkan taraf hidup mereka.

Bahan Bakar
Kebanyakan rakyat miskin, khususnya yang tinggal di perdesaan, masih bergantung pada kayu bakar sebagai sumber utama energi untuk mendukung kehidupan rumah tangga maupun kegiatan perekonomiannya. Untuk memperoleh kayu bakar, terutama untuk kegiatan memasak, jarak yang ditempuh dan waktu yang dibutuhkan relatif panjang. Pada umumnya kegiatan ini dilakukan oleh perempuan dan anak-anak yang masih dianggap tidak mampu melakukan kegiatan yang menambah penghasilan keluarga. Apabila tenaga yang dipakai untuk mendapatkan kayu bakar dimanfaatkan untuk kegiatan produktif, maka pandapatan masyarakat akan meningkat.
Tenaga Listrik

Setidaknya ada dua manfaat utama yang secara langsung diperoleh dari tersedianya listrik bagi rumah tangga maupun usaha kecil untuk mengangkat kehidupan masyarakat miskin. Adanya penerangan di malam hari menjamin kegiatan ekonomi dapat berlangsung dalam waktu lebih panjang, sehingga secara langsung meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat. Kemudian listrik juga memperluas akses masyarakat terhadap informasi, misalnya melalui televisi dan proses belajar di malam hari. Lebih luas lagi, listrik akan mendukung penyediaan layanan kesehatan, pendidikan, dan air bersih yang berkesinambungan dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas hidup masyarakat miskin.

PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT DALAM
PENGEMBANGAN ENERGIALTERNATIF

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, solusi permasalahan energi dicari dengan cara semaksimal mungkin menggunakan potensi lokal yang tidak menunggu dan bergantung pada suplai BBM dari Pertamina dan listrik dari PLN. Kunci keberhasilan pemanfaatan energi alternatif dengan melibatkan potensi lokal adalah dengan memberikan pilihan kepada masyarakat dan melakukan pemberdayaan masyarakat. Masyarakat harus dilibatkan sejak dini, mulai dari proses perencanaan dan disiapkan dengan matang untuk bertindak sebagai pemilik, pengelola, sekaligus pengguna yang bertanggung jawab.
Keuntungan dari mengembangkan pemanfaatan energi alternatif adalah adanya peluang untuk menciptakan kegiatan ekonomi produktif baru yang secara langsung memberikan penghasilan tambahan bagi masyarakat. Peluang ini bisa dalam bentuk usaha penyediaan energi yang dikelola sedemikian rupa dan keuntungannya digunakan untuk peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat, atau untuk membuka usaha kecil dan dengan kreatif memanfaatkan sumber energi baru yang tersedia.
Salah satu pilihan untuk meningkatkan penerimaan aliran listrik di perdesaan adalah memanfaatkan tenaga aliran air yang dikonversi menjadi listrik. Salah satu contohnya adalah Proyekpembangkit listrik Cinta Mekar di Subang, Jawa Barat, yang dibangun oleh Institut Bisnis dan Ekonomi Kerakyatan (IBEKA) bersama Hidropiranti Inti Bhakti Swadaya, yang didukung oleh United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). Proyek ini dikembangkan dengan konsep kemitraan swasta untuk masyarakat miskin.
Memang masyarakat masih menerima hibah dalam jumlah besar dalam program ini. Namun, skema pengelolaan yang sepenuhnya diserahkan kepada masyarakat patut dijadikan contoh bagaimana usaha penyediaan energi mampu secara bersamaan memberi manfaat dari ketersediaan sambungan listrik dan keuntungan ekonomi bagi masyarakat di daerah tersebut.
Kepemilikan masyarakat terhadap pembangkit listrik tersebut diwujudkan melalui koperasi. Harga jual listrik yang harus dibayar masyarakat ditentukan oleh koperasi, dan pendapatan bersih bulanan koperasi dikembalikan kepada masyarakat dengan skala prioritas yang ditetapkan oleh mereka sendiri. Pada awalpengoperasiannya, pendapatan koperasi sebagian besar digunakanuntuk memberikan sambungan listrik pada mereka yang belum mampu membayar. Sisanya disumbangkan untuk peningkatan fasilitas pendidikan dan kesehatan, serta untuk pembangunan infrastruktur desa dan modal usaha masyarakat.
Selang beberapa waktu setelah seluruh rumah telah tersambung listrik, pendapatan koperasi sepenuhnya dialihkan untuk membantu masyarakat miskin dengan sistem yang diciptakan masyarakat sendiri. Untuk keadilan dalam pembagian pendapatan ini, mereka mengelompokkan setiap keluarga berdasarkan klasifikasi bertingkat. Faktor yang digunakan untuk menentukan tingkat kemiskinan di antaranya adalah:
(i) mempunyai pekerjaan tetap;
(ii) kepemilikan tanah;
(iii) kepemilikan rumah tinggal; dan
(iv) tingkat pendidikan.

PENUTUP

Energi sering tidak dipandang sebagai kebutuhan mendasar masyarakat yang bisa mendorong meningkatnya kualitas hidup. Penyediaan energi bagi masyarakat miskin sebisa mungkin menggunakan energi alternatif ramah lingkungan yang didapat secara lokal dan dilakukan dengan pola dasar partisipasi sehinggakeberlanjutannya dapat terjaga. Sebaliknya, bukan tidak mungkinusaha peningkatan aksesibilitas energi yang tidak tepat akanmembawa masyarakat miskin semakin terpuruk dalam jurang kemiskinan.
Nyoman Iswarayoga, Manajer Program Energi, Transportasi, danKualitas Udara, Yayasan Pelangi Indonesia.
Source: SMERU Newsletter No. 16: Oct-Dec

Cegah "PEMANASAN GLOBAL"

Kekayaan alam dengan potensinya yang sangat besar merupakan suatu karunia dari Tuhan. Sungguh beraneka ragam kekayaan yang terkandung didal... thumbnail 1 summary
Kekayaan alam dengan potensinya yang sangat besar merupakan suatu karunia dari Tuhan. Sungguh beraneka ragam kekayaan yang terkandung didalam wilayah negeri ini. Ada hutan-hutan {yang kini sudah berkurang karena terus di tebang } atau hasil tambang minyak {yang semakin membongkar dan merusak perut bumi} dan hasil-hasil bumi lainnya.

Dengan semakin berkembangnya ilmu pengetahuan di abad ini, maka diciptakanlah teknologi-teknologi baru contohnya seperti mesin-mesin dari yang sederhana, dan dikembangkan sehingga menjadi mesin yang modern. Semua itu bisa terjadi karena manusia mempelajari ilmu pengetahuan, ilmu pengetahuan bukan cuma didalam bangku pendidikan namun juga diluar, didalam lingkup masyarakat atau umum.Dengan kemajuan teknologi itu, maka terjadilah suatu arus kehidupan dimana orang mencari keuntungan yang berlipat ganda; tanpa memikirkan dampak yang akan terjadi.

Contoh kongkritnya adalah penebangan hutan. Entah penebangan itu untuk pemukiman penduduk atau pembuatan lahan-lahan pertanian atau sekedar penebangan untuk mengambil kayu-kayu tersebut, entahlah……

Namun yang jelas tanpa ada penanaman kembali atau reboisasi; maka akan ada dampak yang terjadi. Contohnya seperti bahaya banjir, tanah menjadi gersang, arus sungai melemah/mengecil, tanah longsor dll.Apa jadinya bumi yang kita huni bila tiada hutannya, sisa-sisa pengeboran yang nampak seperti gua yang lurus kedalam tanah? Atau Lumpur yang keluar dari dalam tanah karena kesalahan pengeboroan? Udara yang kita hirup terasa pekat karena polusi udara, dari asap kendaraan dan pabrik-pabrik? Bukankah semua itu akan membuat negeri kita menjadi kiamat karena akan mengalami masalah demi masalah yang semuanya itu terjadi karena kecerobohan manusia yang tidak punya hati.Jalan terbaik yang perlu kita lakukan saat ini adalah mengurangi dampak-dampak yang akan terjadi pada lingkungan.

 Terutama lingkungan yang kita tempati. Apabila kita tinggal diwilayah pegunungan maka kita perlu menjaga tanaman-tanaman atau pohon-pohon yang tumbuh disekitar lereng gunung. Bila kita yang tinggal dipinggiran sungai maka kita juga harus menjaga kelancaran arus sungai; kita tidak boleh membuang sampah ke sungai karena akan membuat banjir. Dengan demikian maka kita masih bisa terhindar dari beberapa malapetaka yang mungkin akan terjadi.

DISTRICT INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING UTTARKASHI

Brief history of District District Uttarkashi is named uttarkashi because it is situated between Assi Ganga and varuna Ganga. Border Distri... thumbnail 1 summary

Brief history of District
District Uttarkashi is named uttarkashi because it is situated between Assi Ganga and varuna Ganga. Border District Uttarkashi Was formed on 24 feb. 1960. Before it was a part of teheri State. Even after independence of India people of tehri was under monarchy . after a long mass movement tehri state was merged into India on 1 Aug . 1949. on 1 Aug 1949 the last King of tehri state king Manvendra shah (now M P) Merged the tehri state in to Indian republic and in this Way tehri District came into existence as a part of UP state. For independence people of tehri State did a long revolution under the leadership of Sridev Suman, Nagendra saklani and Bholu bhandari. Tilari undar Rajagarhi (Barkot) tehsil is the symbol of that movement where in 1930 People gathered against Monarchy. It is famous as Tilarikand in history. Still in Uttarkashi it is Celebrated as tilari day. Due to large geographical area and some administrative problem separate district Uttarkashi was carved out of tehri district on 24 feb. 1960. Uttarkashi has beautiful natural resource, hindu piligrim Gangotri and Yamanotri and river Ganga and Yamuna. District has its own religious, mythological, historical and strategic importance. It Was called land of God in Purans. In ancient time trade were conducted from Tibet and Barahat, (old name of Uttarkashi) It Was Commercial market of this area. After China attack in 1962. strategic importance of Uttarkashi was increased manyfoldes. In uttarkashi gift of nature appears in plenty. Snow covered mountains, running rivers, lakes, and grassland (Bugyal) makes it beauty great. The first lady Bachendri Pal, who conquered the Everest belongs to this Distt. Present name Uttarkashi to Barahat was probably given by adi Sankaracharya during visit to Barahat he found its location like Kashi because it was Situated between Varuna and Assi and called it as Kashi of north. Its location and condition is very much similar to kashi. Vishawanath Temple, Annapurna Temple, Kalvhairave Temple Manikarnika Ghat Etc. are also situated here as in Kashi. Even the lanes of Uttarkashi are Similar to Kashi. And are similarly Decorated. After crossing radi valley which is 2220 mtr. above sea level Barkot is the first town of yamuna valley. It is situated on the Bank of yamuna in route of yamanotri 86 Km. far from Distt. Headquarter Uttarkashi. Diet are Situated here. Except this S.D.M. office tehsil office G.I.C., G.G.I.C, I.T.I. Govt.college, and many Pvt. Schools are located here. Field of Telari still tells the story of Barbarisn of Dewan chakradhar Juyal and D.F.O. Padmadatta. 30 may is celebrated as Telari day every year here to remember the martyar.
Block Purola in Rawain Valley came into existence just after the formation of Distt. It was formed by merging Sirain and Rama Sirain Patti of Rawain valley Uttarkashi is blessed by God shiv. It is situated on the Bank of River Bhagarathi. It is said about Shivlinga of Vishawanath temple that it was formed by blessed light of God. According to Historian Vishawanath temple was constructed by king Ganeshwar and the trishul situated in tempal was established by its son Guhraja. North Himalayan area of the District is closer to china which make the district sensitive form security point of view. That is why uttarkashi is a border district. District uttarkashi has to religious places Gangotri and yamonotri. Form Gomukh near Gangotri Bhagirathi gets its origin and from yamonoti yamuna originates. Both are respected river of India. To visit Gangotri and yamonotri tourist from all over India and abroad come here. In the east of the district Chamoli in west Dehradun and Himanchal pradesh and in south tehri is situated. At the time of formation of district the social and economical condition of district was poor than other district.
B) Educational scenario of the district.
1- Geographical status – In north of Uttarkashi Tibet in north west himanchal pradesh in west capital of Uttaranchal Dehradun and in south Tehri Garhwal District is situated. Length of district is 144.84 Km. and width is 90.12 Km. its area is 8016 Sq. Km. district Uttarkashi is situated in between 30.22 to 31.25 latitude and 71.51 to 79.27 longitutde. Geograhplical district can be divided in to three parts.  Snowi reasion adjacent to Tibet.- It is the North part of the district which remains coverd with snow through out the year.  Middle hilly reasion – It is the south region where small mountaion and fields are found religious and tourist places are situated in this region.  Ganga and yamuna valley – Ganga Valley is more fertile than yamona valley.District uttarkashi is situated in the lap of Himalaya and most of the region are hilly district is full with natural resources snowy valley lakes flora and fauna. 88% area is coverd with forest. Forest has mainly tree of pines, Banj, Buransha, Kharasu, Attes, Himari, Pagar, walnut , cham, kharik, bhutia, almond, Deodar, fur, kail, Padma, Bhojpatra etc. at hight grass land called as Bugyal are found. Among birds monal, Kokila, Kaliz etc. are found. District has many beautiful lakes like dodital, Nachiketatal, Saat tal, Sahstra tal, khara tal, Saptarishital etc. Har ki dun, Dayara Bugyal are famous tourists place. Tourists use to visit district through out the year. District has ample opportulity for the development of tourism. In mori block there is a place Kiroli tappad, were the highest pine tree of asia is present. Its height is 60.64 Mtr. and width is 2.54 Mtr. Nehru institute of mountaineering to train mountaineers are situated in uttarkashi. Uttarkashi comes under the Garhwal mandal. Due to beings border district. It has very strategic importance. Importance of uttarkashi was described in the vanparva of mahabharat, kedarkhand of Skandpuran and other mythological scriptures. Among for Dham of Hindu two dham Gangotri and yamonotri are situated in the district. Structure – Total district is hilly full with snowy peaks valleys dense forest rivers fountains etc. District can be divide into Ganga and yamuna valley is popularly known as rawain area.
Hight of sum places – 1- Gangotri-3048 mtr. 2- yamonotri 3185 mtr. 3- harsil – 2620 mtr. kadar parvat – 6940 mtr. Bandar pounch – 6315 mtr. bharat danda – 6800 mtr. Barkot – 1800 mtr. Season :- District has all three season – winter, summer and rainly but period of winter and rainy season is comparatively long. Winter extends from October to November, april to june summer and july to September rainy season is found.
Forest and Agriculture :- 88% area is coverd by forest it has trees of wild grasses, Banj, Deodar, Pines, toon etc. medicinal plants like timaru, Brahm kamal, Salam, Panja, Chiraita, are found in abundance. Commercial production of fruits are done. Cash crop like potato, pea, tomato etc. are also produced many rare wild animals are also found for which sanctuary are formed. Cow, buffalo, Goat, Sheep, Hens are etc. are domestic animals. Goat and sheep are reared commercial. Social and economical status :- main occupation of the people is farming or farming related work. Most of the land is rocky sloppy and less fertile. Thus forming is not very benificial buissiness. Farming of medicinal plants can be beneficial. Industries best on medicinal plants can be established here. Cash crop like potato Ragama, Chilly, tomato etc. are produced here. District has not big industries. An unit of miniral water is run by G.M.V.N. sheep rearing is done some area due to which woolen, cottage industries exists in some villeages. There is a great possibility of tourism in district. District have a special place in medicinal plant farming. Medicinal plants like Atis, Chyun, Matkeshari, Guggul, Shal, Salam, Mishri, Salam panja, Nandrayan, Jambu, Kharasri, Ajawavayan, Kutaki, Deelu, Chiraita, Nairpatti, Ratanjeti, Koont, Bargi etc. are found in abundance. Fruits like peair apple, apricop, Walnut, Guava, Chullu, Pulam etc. are produced here. Many orchard exists in the district.
Water resources and irrigation :- River’s like Ganga, Yamuna, Kamal, Rupin, Supin, Pawar etc. flows through the district. Its water can be used for irrigation and drinking water. Microhidro power plants can be formed to generate revenue. Multipurpose power project can be constituted for irrigation and drinking water and power production. Maneri Bhali project one of them. Farming is mainly rain based but canals and gool are also constructed for irrigation. Many M.H.P. are proposed in the district. Know a days for solving drinking water problems hand pump. are being installed at large scale.
Mineral resource :- lime stone and sulpher mind are present in district. But these are not utilized properly. due to transportation problem. There is a good opportunity of cement industries in the district.
Cultural status :- District has a wide variety of culture. District is divide into two valleys. People of different community live here. Which has different culture, dialect and festival. Rawanlata community lives in rawain valley. Whose culture still lures sociologists. Bhotia community lives in taknaur area of harsil. Which has a different culture and rituals. Each village has its own god or deity temple. Concept of their dolies is peculiar to Garhwali culture for example kandar God in Barahat, someshwar in taknaur, mahasu in hanol, pokhu in Naitawar harimaharaj in manpur Jaganath in sald are famous. In fatte hills area of mori block karna and Duryaodhun are worshipped. District has it own peculiar culture. The main culture is Garhwali but culture of Himanchal Bangan and Jaunpure is also mixed. Garhwali culture dominates in ganga valley while bangani Jaunpuri, Hamanchali and Rawain culture dominate in yamuna valley. Culture of both valley are peculiar in itself. Folk culture of yamuna valley and rawain valley attracts sociologist and pundits of culture from long ago. Pandave doli, Ranso, Chhopati, Tandi, Dangri, Chhora, Pawara, Jagar, are the folk dance of the district. Festivals and fairs are celebrated almost every months. In Uttarkashi Magh Mela in January are organized by district administration. In the mont of baishaka at Bhatwari kyara, fair of bikhod is organized. In the month of Asharh fair of fuleth occurs in raithal, Gorshali, Tihar, Salang, Malla, etc. in taknor area fair of seluku occurs in the last of asharh. In Baishakh fairs occurs in nagun garwarsali, Marogoan etc. Garhwali culture dominated here. Garhwali is main dialect but in urban area generally hindi is spoken. Bangani is spoken in Bangan area of mori block. Bangan is adjacent to himanchal. Bangani is different from garhwali. Hindy culture dominates in uttarkashi.
Important places :- Except block headquarter harshil, chinyali, yamonotri, Arakot, Tyuni, Barkot, Purola, are the main town. DIET is located in Barkot. It is a small town. Mythologically it was the capital of king Sahastrabahu and sage Jamdagni did tapasaya here. It is situated on the bank of river yamuna on the hight of about 1800 mtr. it is 150 Km. away from Dehradun and 86 km. from uttarkashi. It is a base camp for yamonotri. Tourist stay here duning visit to yamonotri. From April to june Tourist crowds here. Hotel Buisness is the main Buisness of barkot.
Adminstrative Structure :- District has five tehsil and five blocks. There are 36 Nayan panchayat. There are nagar panchayat uttakashi and barkot. District has 373 village panchayat. There is a Gangotri notified area in Gangotri. District has 6 B.R.C. and 40 C.R.C. there are six B.E.O. are also appointed.
Literacy Rate :- According to Census 2001 literacy rate is 66.58. male literacy is 84.52 while female literacy is 47.58. but the literacy rate detail recieved from D.P.O. is as fallow.
Population :- According to cansus 2001. total population is 294179. Male female Ratio is 1000:941. population density is 37 person per square Km. detail received from D.P.O. is as fallow.

Microhidro kini Tenaga Surya

UMM Kurangi Ketergantungan Penerangan PLN , Setelah Microhidro kini Tenaga Surya Wednesday, 19 December 2007 Universitas Muhammadiya... thumbnail 1 summary

UMM Kurangi Ketergantungan Penerangan PLN , Setelah Microhidro kini Tenaga Surya


Wednesday, 19 December 2007

Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM) mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap PLN dengan mengembangkan sumber energi listrik. Cara itu dilakukan dengan pembuatan microhidro, yakni pembangkit tenaga listrik dengan mengandalkan aliran Sungai Brantas serta memanfaatkan pembangkit listrik tenaga matahari. Malang, Jika melihat kemegahan kampus UMM semua mata akan terkagum-kagum memandangnya. Apalagi kalau menyempatkan diri mengitari kampus III UMM yang berada di Tegalgondo pada malam hari. Kesan megah penuh dengan pendaran cahaya berwarna-warni membuat kampus putih itu semakin sedap dipandang mata. Kalau melongok lebih dalam lagi ke gedung kuliah bersamanya, akan didapatkan fasilitas lift yang beroperasi 24 jam disetiap gedung kuliah bersama. Disetiap sudut ruang kuliah juga terdapat CCTV yang terhubung langsung ke pusat ruang control langsung. Para mahasiswa seakan tidak kenal waktu nongkrong diberanda kampus mereka. Karena gedung didekat kolam yang menghubungkan ruang kuliah bersama dengan jalan menuju rektorat UMM menyediakan aliran listrik untuk menyalakan laptop plus dengan fasilitas hot spot-nya. “Kelengkapan fasilitas UMM ini memiliki konsekuensi yang cukup tinggi, salah satunya membengkaknya tagihan listrik,” papar Ir Suwignyo MT, dosen Fakultas Teknik UMM, Selasa (18/12).Sedikitnya UMM harus menganggarkan dana Rp 80 juta per bulan hanya untuk tagihan PLN atas pemakaian listriknya yang cukup besar. Penggunaan listrik yang sangat besar ini yang menginspirasi Suwignyo mengembangkan energi listrik dari sumber selain PLN. Salah satunya dengan pembuatan microhidro yang saat ini sedang dibangun bendungan dan rumah turbinnya sebagai alat mengubah energi aliran air Sungai Brantas menjadi energi listrik. “Pembangunan ini sudah lancar dan 27 Desember mendatang akan segera kami launching dan mampu menghasilkan 100.000 watt listrik,” ungkap Suwignyo.UMM juga mulai mengembangkan sumber energi listrik dari media lainnya. Keinginan itu sangat beralasan karena setiap hari membutuhkan energi listrik sekitar 350.000 -400.000 watt, sementara microhidro baru memenuhi sepertiga dari kebutuhan UMM. “Teriknya matahari membuat kami berpikir akan mampu memanfaatkannya. Ini membuat kami mulai membuat plat penampung panas matahari,” beber Ketua pengembangan pembangkit listrik microhidro dan tenaga surya.Saat ini di sekitar heliped maupun di depan rektorat UMM mulai dipasang lampu jalan yang di puncaknya terdapat plat lepeng putih yang mampu untuk penyerap panas. “Plat putih itu memang sengaja diletakkan di ketinggian sehingga mampu menyerap panas lebih cepat tanpa terganggu vegetasi di sekelilingnya,” jelasnya.Cara kerjanya panas yang diambil dari penyinaran surya akan disimpan didalam baterai. Dengan penyinaran yang penuh sepanjang hari, maka baterai bisa terisi penuh dan mampu menghidupkan lampu 40 watt selama 12 jam. Rencananya lampu tenaga surya ini akan dipasang sebanyak 13 unit, namun saat ini yang baru beroperasi hanya tujuh unit. “Kedepannya kami akan mencoba memanfaatkan biogas untuk pembangkit listrik yang baru. Sehingga kami mampu memperbaharui sumber energi yang sudah ada di alam sebagai energi yang dapat diperbaharui,” tandasnya./Renni Susilawati

How Hydropower Works

How Hydropower WorksHydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A turbine converts the kinetic energy ... thumbnail 1 summary


How Hydropower WorksHydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy.
Hydroplants range in size from "micro-hydros" that power only a few homes to giant dams like Hoover Dam that provide electricity for millions of people.
The photo on the right shows the Alexander Hydroelectric Plant on the Wisconsin River, a medium-sized plant that produces enough electricity to serve about 8,000 people.

Parts of a Hydroelectric Plant
Most conventional hydroelectric plants include four major components (see graphic below): Dam. Raises the water level of the river to create falling water. Also controls the flow of water. The reservoir that is formed is, in effect, stored energy. Turbine. The force of falling water pushing against the turbine's blades causes the turbine to spin. A water turbine is much like a windmill, except the energy is provided by falling water instead of wind. The turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Generator. Connected to the turbine by shafts and possibly gears so when the turbine spins it causes the generator to spin also. Converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electric energy. Generators in hydropower plants work just like the generators in other types of power plants. Transmission lines. Conduct electricity from the hydropower plant to homes and business.


How Much Electricity Can a Hydroelectric Plant Make?
The amount of electricity a hydropower plant produces depends on two factors:How Far the Water Falls. The farther the water falls, the more power it has. Generally, the distance that the water falls depends on the size of the dam. The higher the dam, the farther the water falls and the more power it has. Scientists would say that the power of falling water is "directly proportional" to the distance it falls. In other words, water falling twice as far has twice as much energy. Amount of Water Falling. More water falling through the turbine will produce more power. The amount of water available depends on the amount of water flowing down the river. Bigger rivers have more flowing water and can produce more energy. Power is also "directly proportional" to river flow. A river with twice the amount of flowing water as another river can produce twice as much energy.
Can I Figure Out How Much Energy a Dam in My Area Can Make?
Sure. It's not that hard.
Let's say that there is a small dam in your area that is not used to produce electricity. Maybe the dam is used to provide water to irrigate farmlands or maybe it was built to make a lake for recreation. As we explained above, you need to know two things:How far the water falls. From talking to the person who operates the dam, we learn that the dam is 10 feet high, so the water falls 10 feet.Amount of water flowing in the river. We contact the United States Geological Survey, the agency in the U.S. that measures river flow, and learn that the average amount of water flowing in our river is 500 cubic feet per second.
Now all we need to do is a little mathematics. Engineers have found that we can calculate the power of a dam using the following formula:
Power = (Height of Dam) x (River Flow) x (Efficiency) / 11.8Power The electric power in kilowatts (one kilowatt equals 1,000 watts).Height of Dam The distance the water falls measured in feet.River Flow The amount of water flowing in the river measured in cubic feet per second.Efficiency How well the turbine and generator convert the power of falling water into electric power. For older, poorly maintained hydroplants this might be 60% (0.60) while for newer, well operated plants this might be as high as 90% (0.90).11.8 Converts units of feet and seconds into kilowatts.
For the dam in our area, lets say we buy a turbine and generator with an efficiency of 80%.
Then the power for our dam will be:
Power = (10 feet) x (500 cubic feet per second) x (0.80) / 11.8 = 339 kilowatts
To get an idea what 339 kilowatts means, let's see how much electric energy we can make in a year.
Since electric energy is normally measured in kilowatt-hours, we multiply the power from our dam by the number of hours in a year.
Electric Energy = (339 kilowatts) x (24 hours per day) x (365 days per year) = 2,969,000 kilowatt hours.
The average annual residential energy use in the U.S. is about 3,000 kilowatt-hours for each person. So we can figure out how many people our dam could serve by dividing the annual energy production by 3,000.
People Served = 2,969,000 kilowatts-hours / 3,000 kilowatt-hours per person) = 990 people.
So our local irrigation or recreation dam could provide enough renewable energy to meet the residential needs of 990 people if we added a turbine and generator.
Note: Before you decide to add hydropower to a dam, have a hydropower engineer review your calculations and consult with the local resource agencies to be sure you can obtain any permits that are required.



Pembangkit Listrik

Pembangkit listrik adalah suatu rangkaian alat atau mesin yang merubah energi mekanikal untuk menghasilkan energi listrik , biasanya rangka... thumbnail 1 summary
Pembangkit listrik adalah suatu rangkaian alat atau mesin yang merubah energi mekanikal untuk menghasilkan energi listrik, biasanya rangkaian alat itu terdiri dari Turbin dan Generator Listrik.
 Fungsi dari Turbin adalah untuk memutar Rotor dari Generator Listrik, sehingga dari putaran Rotor itu dihasilkanlah energi listrik. Listrik yang dihasilkan dinaikkan dulu voltasenya menjadi 150 KV s/d 500 KV melalui Trafo Step Up. Penaikan tegangan ini berfungsi untuk mengurangi kerugian akibat hambatan pada kawat penghantar sela proses transmisi. Dengan tegangan yang ekstra tinggi maka arus yang mengalir pada kawat penghantar menjadi kecil.
Tegangan yang sudah dinaikkan kemudian ditransmisikan melalui jaringan Saluran Udara Ekstra Tinggi (
SUTET) ke Gardu Induk/GI, untuk diturunkan voltasenya menjadi tegangan menengah 20 KV,kemudian tegangan menengah disalurkan melalui Jaringan Tegangan Menengah (JTM),ke Trafo-trafo Distribusi.Di trafo-trafo distribusi voltasenya diturunkan dari 20 KV menjadi 220 volt dari trafo-trafo distribusi disalurkan melalui Jaringan Tegangan Rendah (JTR) ke Pelanggan Listrik.

Potential Energy

Potential energy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search Potential energy can be thought of as energy sto... thumbnail 1 summary
Potential energy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to:
navigation, search

Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. This energy can be released or converted into other forms of energy, including kinetic energy. It is called potential energy because it has the potential to change the states of objects in the system when the energy is released.
Informally, potential energy exists when there is a
force that tends to pull an object back towards some original position when it is moved. For example, when a spring is stretched to the left, it exerts a force to the right so as to return to its original, un-stretched position. Or, suppose that a weight is lifted straight up. The force of gravity will try to bring it back down to its original position. The initial steps of stretching the spring and lifting the weight both require energy to perform. The principle of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, so this energy does not disappear. Instead it is stored as potential energy. If the spring is released or the weight is dropped, this stored energy will reappear as kinetic energy as the restoring forceelasticity in the case of the spring and gravity in the case of the weight — accelerates the object back towards its original position.
The more formal definition is that potential energy is the energy of position, that is, the energy an object is considered to have due to its position in space.
There are a number of different types of potential energy, each associated with a particular kind of
force. Technically, any conservative force gives rise to potential energy. For example, the work of elastic force is called elastic potential energy; work of gravitational force is called gravitational potential energy, work of the Coulomb force is called electric potential energy; work of strong nuclear force or weak nuclear force acting on the baryon charge is called nuclear potential energy; work of intermolecular forces is called intermolecular potential energy. Chemical potential energy, such as the energy stored in fossil fuels, is the work of Coulomb force during rearrangement of mutual positions of electrons and nuclei in atoms and molecules. Thermal energy usually has two components: the kinetic energy of random motion of particles and potential energy of their mutual positions.
The phrase 'potential energy' was coined by
William Rankine.[1]

As a general rule, the work done by a conservative force F will be
where ΔPEF is the change in the potential energy associated with that particular force

Electricity Generation

Main article: Electricity generation Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water t... thumbnail 1 summary
Main article: Electricity generation



Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. In this case the energy extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. To obtain very high head, water for a hydraulic turbine may be run through a large pipe called a penstock.
Pumped storage hydroelectricity produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped storage schemes currently provide the only commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily load factor of the generation system. Hydroelectric plants with no reservoir capacity are called run-of-the-river plants, since it is not then possible to store water. A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of barrages and reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods.
Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels, the relatively recent field of hydrokinetics.






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